I have encouraged teachers to aim for one of two models – either the Duet or the Lead and Support, with my other seven models becoming components of either of those. The major difference I see between the two is the amount of co-planning that takes place. In my Duet Model, both teachers do all of the big, up-front planning together. They determine curricula, big ideas or essential questions, major themes, projects, assignments and assessments. After this big work is done, they continue co-planning the specifics of each unit, each week and each day. Of course, this requires an enormous amount of co-planning time, and can only be done successfully with sufficient staffing. I usually suggest the Duet Model if a specialist is co-teaching with just one or two classroom teachers, and the Lead and Support Model if the specialist is co-teaching with three or four classroom teachers.
My Lead and Support Model expects that the general education teacher will take the lead on the big, up-front decisions about instruction and sketch an outline of the unit, including daily learning targets. The specialist jumps into the co-planning at this point and suggests various ways to tweak, adapt and implement in order to support students who may struggle, as well as to address IEP goals.
Unfortunately, my old title, Lead and Support, left some partners with the impression of a hierarchy of power. It occasionally resulted in classroom teachers who felt they were in charge, and in specialists who believed that wandering the room and helping students was an adequate way to support.
The Map and Navigate Model (formerly known as Lead and Support) has been named to put a greater emphasis on the collaborative relationship and role of both in the planning process. While the general education teacher will map out the general direction and destination, the specialist works to navigate the distance, finding one route or multiple routes to get all students to the final location. While the general education teacher gets started on planning by him or herself, together they co-plan the details. The expectations still are that both teachers plan and teach the lessons together.
If you have any questions about this change, or how to maximize the efficiency in your co-planning, please let me know. I would be happy to help!